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Journal Articles

The Future of Platform Power: Solving for a Moving Target

Francis Fukuyama
Journal of Democracy , 2021

This essay is a part of an exchange based on Francis Fukuyama’s “Making the Internet Safe for Democracy” from the April 2021 issue of the Journal of Democracy.

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Journal Articles

Anonymity or Distance? Job Search and Labour Market Exclusion in a Growing African City

Girum Abebe, Stefano Caria, Marcel Fafchamps, Paolo Falco, Simon Franklin, Simon Quinn
The Review of Economic Studies , 2021
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Journal Articles

The evolution of built-up areas in Ghana since 1975

Marcel Fafchamps, Forhad Shilpi
PLoS one , 2021

We use high resolution satellite data on the proportion of buildings in a 250x250 meter cell to study the evolution of human settlement in Ghana over a 40 year period. We find a strong increase in built-up area over time, mostly concentrated in the vicinity of roads, and also directly on the coast. We find strong evidence of agglomeration effects both in the static sense—buildup in one cell predicts buildup in a nearby cell—and in a dynamic sense—buildup in a cell predicts buildup in that cell later on and an increase in buildup in nearby cells. These effects are strongest over a 3 to 15 Km radius, which corresponds to a natural hinterland for a population without mechanized transportation. We find no evidence that human settlements are spaced more or less equally either over the landscape or along roads. This suggests that arable land is not yet fully utilized, allowing rural settlements to be separated by areas of un-farmed land. By fitting a transition matrix to the data, we predict a sharp increase in the proportion of the country that is densely built-up by the middle and the end of the century, but no increase in the proportion of partially built-up locations.

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Journal Articles

Making the Internet Safe for Democracy

Francis Fukuyama
Journal of Democracy , 2021

The power of large internet platforms to amplify or silence certain voices at a scale that can alter major political outcomes poses a grave threat to democracy.

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Working Papers

Government Quality and State Capacity: Survey Results from Brazil

Ana Karine Pereira, Raphael Amorim Machado, Pedro Luiz Costa Cavalcante, Alexandra de Avile Gomide, Amanda Gomes Magalhaes, Isabella de Araujo Goellner, Roberto Rocha Coelho Pires, Katherine Bersch, Alan Ricardo da Silva
2021
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Working Papers

Trading Stocks Builds Financial Confidence and Compresses the Gender Gap

Saumitra Jha, Moses Shayo
Stanford GSB , 2021

Many studies document low rates of financial literacy and suboptimal levels of participation in financial markets. These issues are particularly acute among women. Does this reflect a self-reinforcing trap? If so, can a nudge to participate in financial markets generate knowledge, confidence, and further increase informed participation? We conduct a large field experiment that enables and incentivizes working-age men and women---a challenging group to reach with standard financial training programs---to trade stocks for four to seven weeks. We provide no additional educational content. We find that trading significantly improves financial confidence, as reflected in stock market participation, objective and subjective measures of financial knowledge, and risk tolerance. These effects are especially strong among women. Participants also become more self-reliant and consult others less when making financial decisions.

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Journal Articles

Governing youth in times of dissent: essay competitions, politics of history, and emotions

Ayça Alemdaroğlu
Turkish Studies , 2021

This article examines the AKP’s youth politics in the aftermath of the 2013 Gezi Protests. It focuses on a seemingly mundane cultural practice of essay writing and student essay competitions to investigate the party’s message and methods in addressing young people. In particular, it examines the politics of history and emotional politics in the party's effort to construct and administer youth publics. The article argues that the AKP’s power is embedded in and reproduced by the articulation of political differences and mobilization of emotions, which play a significant role in the party’s broader bid to reorganize society, redefine collective identity, and control dissent.

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Books

Russia Resurrected: Its Power and Purpose in a New Global Order

Kathryn Stoner
2021

An assessment of Russia that suggests that we should look beyond traditional means of power to understand its strength and capacity to disrupt international politics.

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Journal Articles

Lancet Series on Women’s and Children’s Health in Conflict Settings

Paul H. Wise, Eran Bendavid, Stephen J. Stedman
2021

A new four-paper series in The Lancet exposes the far-reaching effects of modern warfare on women’s and children’s health.

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Working Papers

Heroes and Villains: The Effects of Heroism on Autocratic Values and Nazi Collaboration in France

Julia Cage, Anna Dagorret, Pauline A. Grosjean, Saumitra Jha
Stanford GSB , 2021

We measure the effects of a network of heroes in legitimizing and diffusing extreme political behaviors. Exploiting newly-declassified intelligence files, novel voting data and regimental histories, we show the home municipalities of French line regiments arbitrarily rotated through Philippe Petain's command during the heroic WWI battle of Verdun, though similar before WWI, increasingly espouse Petain's authoritarian political views thereafter, raising 7% more active Nazi collaborators per capita during the Petain-led Vichy regime (1940-44). The effects are similar across joining Fascist parties, German forces, paramilitaries hunting Jews and the Resistance, and collaborating economically.

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Journal Articles

Reassessing American Democracy: The Enduring Challenge of Racial Exclusion

Johanna Kalb, Didi Kuo
Michigan Law Review Online , 2020

American democracy is in trouble. Since the 2016 election, a sizable literature has developed that focuses on diagnosing and assessing the state of American democracy, most of which concludes that our system of government is in decline.[2] These authors point to the rise in party polarization, the increasingly bipartisan abandonment of the norms of the democratic process, the rise of populism, the degradation of the public sphere, and the proliferation of gerrymandered districts and voting restrictions to illustrate the breakdown.

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Books

How to Make Love to a Despot: An Alternative Foreign Policy for the Twenty-First Century

Stephen D. Krasner
2020

After generations of foreign policy failures, the United States can finally try to make the world safer―not by relying on utopian goals but by working pragmatically with nondemocracies.

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Journal Articles

What Would a Second Trump Term Do to the Federal Bureaucracy?

Francis Fukuyama, Francis Fukuyama
Washington Monthly , 2020

American public service is under grave threat. It has been heavily politicized during the first Trump term, and in a second may deteriorate rapidly as cronyism, corruption, and incompetence become the new norms.

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Journal Articles

Legislatures and Policy Making in Authoritarian Regimes

Scott Williamson, Beatriz Magaloni
Comparative Political Studies , 2020
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Journal Articles

Egypt’s Consolidated Authoritarianism

Amr Hamzawy
2020

The current Egyptian political scene reveals an important paradox: since its ascendancy to power in 2013, the military-led authoritarian government has not faced significant challenges from civil society despite systematic human rights abuses and continuous societal crises.

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Journal Articles

Political Reform and American Democracy

Didi Kuo
2020

The 2016 election brought into sharp relief the anomalies and imperfections of our democratic institutions. Trump, beating out a crowded field of primary candidates, won the election having lost the popular vote. Despite intense media coverage, the party primaries were still low-turnout events, and party infighting undermined the legitimacy of the final candidates. Third-party candidates who stood no chance of winning nonetheless drew significant votes in swing states.

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Journal Articles

PROTECTING ELECTORAL INTEGRITY IN THE DIGITAL AGE

Stephen J. Stedman, Nathaniel Persily, Alex Stamos, Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Laura Chinchilla, Noeleen Heyzer, Yves Leterme, Ory Okolloh , Ernesto Zedillo, Megan Smith, William Sweeney
2020

Democratic consolidation around the world currently faces major challenges. Threats to democracy have become more insidious, especially due to the manipulation of legal and constitutional procedures originally designed to guard democracy against arbitrary action and abuse. Free and fair elections, the cornerstone of democratic legitimacy, are under considerable stress from populism and post-truth movements, who abuse new digital communication technologies to confuse and mislead citizens.

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Journal Articles

30 Years of World Politics: What Has Changed?

Francis Fukuyama
2020

Since the publication of the Journal of Democracy began in 1990, the political climate has shifted from one of democratic gains and optimism to what Larry Diamond labels a “democratic recession.” Underlying these changes has been a reorientation of the major axis of political polarization, from a left-right divide defined largely in economic terms toward a politics based on identity. In a second major shift, technological development has had unexpected effects—including that of facilitating the rise of identity-based social fragmentation.

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Working Papers

Engaging, Empowering, and Enabling Youth to Lead Social Action in the Favelas of Rio de Janeiro

Beatriz Magaloni, Veriene Melo
2020

This study is the result of over four years of active collaboration between the Poverty, Violence and Governance Lab (PovGov) and the Rio-based NGO Agency for Youth Networks (hereafter, Agency). What began in 2012 as an informal conversation between PovGov researchers and the program’s founder and director, Marcus Faustini, led to a solid partnership that has produced not only this research but also opportunities for engagement through events both in California and in Rio de Janeiro.

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Journal Articles

Breaking Out of the Democratic Slump

Larry Diamond
2020

Since 2006, democracy in the world has been trending downward. A number of liberal democracies are becoming less liberal, and authoritarian regimes are developing more repressive tendencies. Democracies are dying at the hands of elected authoritarian populists who neuter or take over the institutions meant to constrain them. Changes in the international environment, as well as technological developments and growing inequality, have contributed to this democratic slump.

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Working Papers

How body-worn cameras affect the use of gunshots, stop-and searches and other forms of police behavior: A Randomized Control Trial in Rio de Janeiro

Beatriz Magaloni, Vanessa Melo, Gustavo Robles, Gustavo Empinotti
2020

In this paper we examine the effects of police body-worn cameras through a randomized control trial implemented in Rio de Janeiro. The paper explores the use of this technology by police officers in charge of tactical operations and officers performing “proximity” patrolling in the largest favela of Brazil, Rocinha. The study reveals that institutional and administrative limitations at Military Police of the State of Rio de Janeiro (PMERJ) were associated with limited use of the cameras –basically officers refusing to turn the cameras on.

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