ARD Releases May 2022 Issue of Mofeed Digest

The Program on Arab Reform and Democracy (ARD) at CDDRL is pleased to announce the release of the May 2022 issue of Mofeed Digest, a periodic recap of the most important scholarly and policy publications, reports, and articles investigating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the politics, economies, and societies of the Arab world.
Mofeed Digest 2

The Program on Arab Reform and Democracy (ARD) at CDDRL is pleased to announce the release of the May 2022 issue of Mofeed Digest, a periodic recap of the most important scholarly and policy publications, reports, and articles investigating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the politics, economies, and societies of the Arab world. 

Mofeed Digest is a feature of the Mofeed Project, an initiative that builds foundational resources for understanding how the politics and societies of the Arab world have adapted in light of the pandemic. The Mofeed Project is supported in part by the Open Society Foundation.

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Mofeed Digest (May 2022)

The following digest summarizes the most important scholarly and policy publications, reports, and articles covering the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the politics, economies, and societies of the Arab world. Mofeed Digest is produced by Mofeed Project Coordinator Serage Amatory.

[MENA | Algeria | BahrainEgyptIraq| Jordan| KuwaitLebanonMorocco| OmanPalestine| Qatar| Saudi ArabiaSomalia| SudanTunisia| UAE]



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Population’s Behavior toward COVID-19 Safety Measures: Evidence from Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia
Agence Française de Développement, May 2022
This article captures the public’s behavior toward COVID-19 safety measures in each of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. In all these countries, the article found that women are those who mostly observe the safety measures.

Social Safety Nets and Food Insecurity in MENA in the Time of COVID-19
Agence Française de Développement, May 2022
This article assesses the efficiency of social safety nets in the MENA region in mitigating food insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also provides context for the chronic undernourishment of over 50 million people in the region in 2019.

A Billionaire’s World: Labor, Loss, and Inequality in the Middle East and North Africa During COVID
Harvard International Review, 4 May 2022
This article focuses on the MENA region in juxtaposing the global spike of 3.9 trillion USD in billionaires’ wealth during the first year of the pandemic with the parallel loss of 3.7 trillion USD in workers’ assets.

Diverging Levels of COVID-19 Governmental Response Satisfaction Across Middle Eastern Arab Countries: A Multinational Study
BMC Public Health, 5 May 2022
This article evaluates and compares public opinion on the governmental measures to control the spread of COVID-19 of high, low and middle-income countries in the Middle East. When benchmarked with international levels of satisfaction, GCC countries scored highly whereas Lebanon scored poorly. 

Tracking COVID-19 Urban Activity Changes in the Middle East from Nighttime Lights
Scientific Reports, 16 May 2022
This article utilizes nighttime lights data from NASA from 584 urban areas to track the implementation and adherence to curfew and lockdown measures in 17 MENA countries during the first four months of the COVID-19 pandemic.


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The Geometrization of the COVID-19 Care Offer for the ORSEC Plan in Algeria
Algerian Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, Date Unspecified 
This article utilizes several scientific tools to examine the readiness of different Algerian provinces to face the COVID-19 pandemic.

Intention to Get COVID-19 Vaccination and Its Associated Predictors: A Cross-Sectional Study Among the General Public in Algeria
Science Direct, 13 May 2022 
This article presents the results of an online survey conducted to assess the intentions to receive the Covid-19 vaccine among the Algerian population. Out of a total of 656 participants, 51.1% were in favor of COVID-19 vaccines while 18.5% and 30.5% were against or hesitant respectively.

Side Effects of COVID-19 Inactivated Virus vs. Adenoviral Vector Vaccines: Experience of Algerian Healthcare Workers
Frontiers in Public Health, 16 May 2022
This article evaluates side effects of COVID-19 vaccines in a sample of 721 Algerian healthcare workers. Most common self-reported side effects were injection site pain, arm pain, fatigue, fever, headache and myalgia. 

Food Behavior of the Algerian Population at the Time of the COVID-19: The First Survey Carried Out in the Western Algerian Region
South Asian Journal, 28 May 2022
This article sheds light on the Algerian population's food habits during the pandemic through an observational and descriptive epidemiological study conducted on 640 individuals.



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Comparative Modelling of Stock Price Volatility Before and During the COVID- 19 Pandemic in Bahrain: Implications to the Effect of the Pandemic to Stock Price Autocorrelation
Diamond Scientific Publishing, Date Unspecified  
This article studies the volatility of stock prices before and during the pandemic in Bahrain. It found that the weekly price movements of the BAX index were more volatile during the pandemic than before its onset.

The Effect of Age, Gender and Comorbidities Upon SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody Induction After Two Doses of Sinopharm Vaccine and the Effect of a Pfizer/BioNtech Booster Vaccine
Frontiers in Immunology, 30 May 2022
This article reports the findings of a study that evaluated antibody levels in 379 Bahraini individuals to assess the effect of a COVID-19 booster dose. The authors hoped that their study would help develop a triple dose vaccination strategy to ensure protective immunity against COVID-19.




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Impact of COVID-19 on Cardiothoracic Surgery: Experience of Alexandria (Egypt) Main University Hospital
Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery, 23 May 2022
This article examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the workflow and waiting lists of high-cost Cardiothoracic surgeries in Egypt. It found that cardiac surgeries have witnessed the worst consequences, including cancellation of all surgeries, expansion of waiting lists, and patients' non-compliance with follow-up.



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Trends in COVID-19: Incidence, mortality, and case fatality in Iraq
Saudi Medical Journal, May 2022
This article reports the findings of a biometric study conducted in 2021 to help detect the epidemiological trend of COVID-19 in Iraq, the distribution of cases according to age, gender, and geographic distribution. The authors also examined morbidity and mortality rates to evaluate the intensity of the COVID-19 burden on the Iraqi healthcare system.


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The Impact of COVID-19 on the Jordanian Households and Firms: Findings from the ERF Covid-19 Monitor in Jordan 
Economic Research Forum, May 2022
ERF and FCDO collaborated to conduct short panel phone surveys aiming to assess how Jordanian households, firms, micro firms, and workers cope with the impact of COVID-19.

Attitude of Pregnant and Lactating Women toward COVID-19 Vaccination in Jordan: a Cross-Sectional Study
Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 3 May 2022
This article reports the findings of a study conducted with pregnant and lactating women in Jordan to determine their stances towards the COVID-19 vaccine and understand their varying attitudes. 

COVID-19 Epidemiology and Changes in Health Service Utilization in Azraq and Zaatari Refugee Camps in Jordan: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Plos Medicine, 10 May 2022
This article utilized observational programmatic data to describe the epidemiology of COVID-19 in Jordan, and at two refugee camps Zaatari and Azraq specifically. The authors analyzed the difference in routine health services pre and post COVID-19. 

Conception Preferences during COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdowns
Behavioral Sciences, 13 May 2022
This article focused on women in Jordan to study their insights regarding fertility, the preparedness to use assisted reproductive technology, and the awareness and beliefs related to conceiving during the COVID-19 pandemic.



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School Is Closed : Simulating the Long-Term Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic–Related School Disruptions in Kuwait
World Bank, 5 May 2022
This working paper tackles the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent educational disruptions on students in Kuwait. It found that during the pandemic, students in Kuwait faced significant reductions in their lifetime income, with males facing a larger reduction than females.

COVID-19 Outcomes Among Rheumatic Disease Patients in Kuwait: Data from the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance (C19-GRA) Physician Registry
International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases, 11 May 2022
This article assesses the characteristics of inflammatory rheumatic disease (IRD) patients in Kuwait diagnosed with COVID-19 and the factors linked with hospitalization, complications, and mortality.



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Lebanon: Challenges and Successes in COVID-19 Pandemic Response
Rand Corporation, 6 May 2022 
This blog-post from The Rand Blog identifies challenges in COVID-19 responses faced by Lebanon amid the current political and economic crises. The authors also highlights the country’s successes and innovations in combating those challenges. 

Too Much to Mask: Determinants of Sustained Adherence to COVID-19 Preventive Measures Among older Syrian Refugees in Lebanon
MedRxiv, 10 May 2022 
This article studies the determinants of adherence of two non-pharmaceutical COVID-19 preventive measures in Lebanon: masking-up and social distance.  The study focused on Syrian refugees in Lebanon aging 50 and older. 

The Impact of COVID-19 and the Economic Crisis on Lebanese Public Health: from Food insecurity to Healthcare Disintegration
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health, 16 May 2022
This article reviews the impact of the economic crisis in Lebanon and the pandemic's effect on health and healthcare. The study looked at measures such as food insecurity, water shortages, hospital and medication crises, labor force issues, and electricity and fuel shortages. 

Development of a Quality Assurance Tool for Intensive Care Units in Lebanon during the COVID-19 Pandemic
International Journal for Quality in Healthcare, 31 May 2022
This article was motivated by the fact that the World Health Organization has supported the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health to increase ICU beds at public hospitals by 300%, without having a readily available tool to monitor the quality of ICU care. Therefore, the authors describe the process of rapidly developing and implementing a tool to monitor the quality of ICU care at public hospitals in Lebanon.




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Real-world study of the effectiveness of BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm) COVID-19 vaccine in the Kingdom of Morocco
medRxiv, 27 April 2022 
This article discusses the findings of a case control study that was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the Sinopharm vaccine in Morocco. The results were in agreement with the literature showing it was highly protective against serious and critical hospitalization. 

Factors Associated with COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance in Morocco: Applying the Health Belief Model
Vaccines, 16 May 2022
This article presents an analysis of a cross-sectional survey completed by 3800 individuals to identify the factors that influenced the population in Morocco to receive the vaccine. Authors show that the strongest predictor for the intention of receiving a vaccine is whether a participant is married.

Role of Instagram on the Purchasing Behavior of Moroccan Consumers during the COVID-19
International Journal of Accounting, Finance, Auditing, Management and Economics, 31 May 2022
This article delineates the factors that influenced the purchasing habits of Moroccans during the COVID-19 pandemic and investigates the way Instagram specifically shaped these behaviors. It presents the results of a survey taken among 200 Instagram using consumers.




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Psychological Effects of, and Compliance with, Self-Isolation among COVID-19 Patients in South Batinah Governorate, Oman: A Cross-Sectional Study
The Egyptian Journal of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery, 8 May 2022
This article investigates the extent to which COVID-19 patients complied with self-isolation policies. It also examines the psychological effects of self-isolation on patients in Oman.

The Impact and Challenges of Education and Administration in VET on Economic Growth in Oman During the COVID-19 Period
Frontiers in Psychology, 16 May 2022
This article aims to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on economic growth and the impact of institutional management and education on Vocational Education and Training schools in Oman. 

Clinical and Biochemical Characteristics of COVID-19 in a Primary Care Center in the South Batinah Region of Oman
Cureus, 18 May 2022
This article reviews the medical charts of 150 patients at Rustaq Polyclinic in South Oman to identify the clinical and biomedical profile of the coronavirus disease and variations across demographic groups.



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Seroprevalence of SARS-COV-2 Antibodies Among Vaccinated and Non-Vaccinated Adults in the West Bank: Results of a Repeated Cross-Sectional Study
medRxiv, 16 May 2022
This article discusses the findings of an assessment of the seroprevalence rate among a random sample of Palestinians residing in the West Bank region. The authors reveal a drastic rise in seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies due to infection and vaccination.

UNRWA Releases Health Programme Report: Innovation in the Face of Covid-19 – Press Release
United Nations, 24 May 2022
This UNRWA report examines the situation of Palestinian refugees during the COVID-19 pandemic against the backdrop of the hostilities in Gaza, the ongoing war in Syria, and the economic/social/political crisis in Lebanon.



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Effectiveness of Ehteraz Digital Contact Tracing App versus Conventional Contact Tracing in Managing the Outbreak of COVID-19 in the State of Qatar
BMJ Innovations, 3 May 2022
This article uses two databases to evaluate the accuracy of Ehteraz (the Qatari app for the control of the COVID-19 pandemic) as a tracing tool and compares its effectiveness to that of the traditional human led case investigation. 

Effect of mRNA Vaccine Boosters against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Infection in Qatar
The New England Journal of Medicine, 12 May 2022
This article conducted two retrospective studies in Qatar to examine the effectiveness of a booster vaccination, compared to the usual two dose vaccination, in preventing SARS-COV-2 infection and serious COVID-19 hospitalization and death.

Flu Vaccine Could Cut COVID Risk
Nature, 12 May 2022
This article reports that influenza vaccines were effective in preventing COVID-19 according to a study held on more than 30,000 healthcare workers in Qatar.

Predictors of Mortality and Morbidity in Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients: An Experience from a Low Mortality Country
Health Sciences Report, 17 May 2022
This article studies the clinical characteristics and factors associated with mortality in patients admitted to intensive care units in Qatar. They found that these rates were lower in Qatar compared to other countries. 

The Association between Tobacco Use and COVID-19 in Qatar
Preventive Medicine Reports, 19 May 2022
This article studies the association between tobacco usage and COVID-19 hospitalization cases.

The Impact of the COVID-19 Lockdown “Home Quarantine” on the Physical Activity and Lifestyle of Children in Qatar
Frontiers in Public Health, 25 May 2022  
This article presents the results of a cross-sectional online survey distributed in Qatar to assess the impact of quarantine on physical activity, screen time, sleep, and diet in children aging 5 to 12.


Saudi Arabia

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Fractional-Order Coronavirus Models with Vaccination Strategies Impacted on Saudi Arabia's Infections
AIMS Mathematics, Date Unspecified  
This article highlights the role of fractional calculus models in describing the growth of COVID-19 dynamics in Saudi Arabia over the span of 107 days. 

Post-Acute COVID-19 Condition in Saudi Arabia: A National Representative Study
Journal of Infection and Public Health, May 2022
This article presents a retrospective cross-sectional study characterizing the symptoms that appear after SARS-COV-2 infection in Saudi Arabia. The article also determines the relationship of the different “post-symptoms” with COVID-19 severity. 

Clinical Characteristics, Laboratory Findings, Management, and Outcome of Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Children at a Tertiary Care Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Retrospective Study
Frontiers in Pediatrics, 3 May 2022
This article investigates the clinical features of COVID-19 infected children, and discusses the therapeutic methods used in their treatment in Saudi Arabia. It analyzes data on children with COVID-19, including demographics, comorbidities, symptoms, imaging and laboratory results, therapies, and clinical outcomes.

Perceived Stress and Resilience Levels during the COVID-19 Pandemic among Critical Care Nurses in Saudi Arabia: A Correlational Cross-Sectional Study
PeerJ, 6 May 2022
This article studies the level of stress of nurses working in critical care units fighting directly against COVID-19. Although COVID-19 cases had declined significantly during the study period in Saudi Arabia, the majority of nurses were still experiencing moderate to high levels of stress about the epidemic, but were, at the same time, moderately resilient.

Prevalence of Anxiety, Depression, and Sleep Disturbances Associated With the COVID-19 Outbreak in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Cureus, 9 May 2022
This article assesses the occurrence of sleep disturbance associated with the spread of COVID-19 among residents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It also discusses the psychological effects of the outbreak. 

Effect of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions in the Early Phase of the COVID-19 Epidemic in Saudi Arabia
Plos Global Public Health, 9 May 2022
This article reports on a study of the relation between non-pharmaceutical interventions (such as masking and lockdowns etc…) and SARS-COV-2 transmission in Saudi Arabia during its first pandemic wave. 

The Psychological Impact of COVID-19 on Residents of Saudi Arabia
Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 13 May 2022
This article studies stress levels and their determinants during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. The authors report that 35.4% of participants suffered from moderate or severe psychological impact, 19.7% had a mild psychological impact, whereas 44.9% reported minimal psychological impact. 

How Students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are Coping with COVID-19 Pandemic
Journal of Public Health Research, 16 May 2022
This article sheds light on the coping mechanisms adopted by higher education students in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results reveal that the 4 most frequent strategies were: seeking social support, acceptance, mental disengagement, and humanitarian engagement. 

Stress Perception among Dental Practitioners in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Survey
Sigma Vitae, 18 May 2022
This article reports the stress levels among dentists in Saudi Arabia after the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic. Overall dental practitioners are at moderate stress levels; among them, males, private practitioners, and dentists above 50 years of age exhibited more stress, whereas graduates had the least stress scores.

A Remaining Piece of the COVID-19 Puzzle: Saudi Arabia’s Remittances Account
King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center, 30 May 2022
This paper assesses the behavioral shift and trend break in remittance outflows from Saudi Arabia which is ranked among the top 5 countries in remittance worldwide. It contextualizes the change within the reality of the COVID-19 pandemic. 

Knowledge Levels of Acceptance and Hesitancy of COVID-19 Vaccine Among General Population of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Medicine and Pharmacology, 31 May 2022
This article examines the knowledge levels of acceptance and hesitancy of receiving the COVID-19 vaccine among the population of Saudi Arabia. 



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Resilience during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Perspectives from Somalia’s Businesses
World Bank, 5 May 2022
This World Bank blog-post discusses the COVID-19 related sections of the WB Somalia Economic Update.



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Women Mental Health Status and Behaviour Change during the COVID-19 in Sudan
Heliyon, May 2022
This article discusses the results of a questionnaire assessing women's roles during the COVID-19 pandemic in Khartoum, Sudan. It also tackles changes in their mental health. 

Face Mask Practice and Technique During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Nonrepresentative Cross-Sectional Study in Sudan
Patient Preference and Adherence, 3 May 2022
This article reports the findings of a cross-sectional study conducted among Sudanese aged 18 and older to assess face mask wearing practice during the COVID-19 pandemic among the Sudanese population. 

Socio-Economic Impact Assessment of COVID-19 on Migrants in Eastern Sudan
DTM, 15 May 2022
This report examines the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on various aspects of migrants’ life in Sudan.

Widespread Cynicism About COVID-19 Vaccines In Sudan
SMEX, 26 May 2022
This article highlights the governmental and non-governmental responses in Sudan to counter vaccine and COVID-19 misinformation online.




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Phylogenetic and Amino Acid Signature Analysis of the SARS-CoV-2s Lineages Circulating in Tunisia
Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 10 May 2022
This article identifies SARS-COV-2 lineages in Tunisia and explores their genetic characteristics. The researchers captured a total of 335 mutations. 



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Vaccine Side Effects Following COVID-19 Vaccination Among the Residents of the UAE—An Observational Study
Frontiers in Public Health, 6 May 2022
This article aims to investigate the nature, difference, and severity of COVID-19 vaccines’ side effects.

The Psychological Distress and COVID-19 Pandemic during Lockdown: A Cross-Sectional Study from United Arab Emirates (UAE)
Heliyon, 13 May 2022
This article evaluates the psychological impact of COVID-19 related lockdown measures on UAE residents. It concludes that the lockdown more psychologically impacted males, older people, and unemployed individuals during the pandemic.

Investigation of Factors Affecting COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance Among Communities of Universities in the United Arab Emirates
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, 20 May 2022 
This article investigates the impact of various factors on the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine in 5 universities across UAE. 

Impact of the Coronavirus Disease Pandemic and Related Vaccination in an Orthopedic Clinic in the United Arab Emirates: An Observational Study
Frontiers in Surgery, 31 May 2021
This article explores the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and vaccination on individuals fighting musculoskeletal disorders in the UAE.