Recent Publications

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What Democracy Assistance Is and Is Not

January 2005

Events in Ukraine have inspired most people living in the free world.

Putin and the 'Delegative Democracy' Trap: Evidence from Russia's 2003-04 Elections

October 2004

Three experts on Russian elections analyze the surprising degree to which Russian voters supported their leaders, especially Putin, in the December 2003 Duma elections and the March 2004...

Ruling Parties and Durable Authoritarianism

October 2004

The field of authoritarian subtypes has usefully described the third wave's undercurrent, an international trend toward plebiscitarian politics among persistent dictatorships.

Russian Democracy in Eclipse: What the Elections Tell Us

July 2004

Although Russia's most recent presidential and parliamentary ballots witnessed worrisomely lopsided victories for incumbent president Vladimir Putin and the Kremlin-backed United Russia party, they...

Between Dictatorship and Democracy: Russian Post-Communist Political Reform

February 2004

For hundreds of years, dictators have ruled Russia. Do they still?

The Rule of Law as Transition to Democracy in China

December 2003

This paper assesses Pan Wei's proposal for a 'consultative rule of law system' for China, finding it a potentially important step along the path of political reform.

The Quality of Democracy: The Ambiguous Virtues of Accountability

December 2003

When Terry Karl and I were searching for the most generic definition of “modern representative political democracy,” we hit upon the concept of accountability.

The Quality of Two Liberal Democracies in Africa: Ghana and South Africa

December 2003

While the Third Wave of Democracy swept through many African countries in the 1990s, South Africa and Ghana stand out as two of the continent’s real success stories politically.

Popular Choice and Managed Democracy: The Russian Elections of 1999 and 2000

December 2003

Twice in the winter of 1999-2000, citizens of the Russian Federation flocked to their neighborhood voting stations and scratched their ballots in an atmosphere of uncertainty, rancor, and fear....

Islam and Democracy in the Middle East

December 2003

Islam and Democracy in the Middle East provides a comprehensive assessment of the origins and staying power of Middle East autocracies, as well as a sober account of the struggles of state...

The Quality of Democracy in South Korea and Taiwan: Subjective Assessments from the Perspectives of Ordinary Citizens

December 2003

South Korea (Korea hereafter) and Taiwan are widely recognized as the two most successful third-wave democracies in Asia (Chu, Diamond, and Shin, 2001; Diamond and Plattner, 1998; Shin and Lee,...

Consolidating Democracies

December 2002

The first edition of Comparing Democracies was a landmark text, providing students with a thematic introduction to the global study of elections and voting.

A Man for All Seasons: A New, More Flexible George W. Bush?

September 2002

President George W.

Elections Without Democracy: Thinking about Hybrid Regimes

April 2002

Many countries have adopted the form of democracy with little of its substance. This makes the task of classifying regimes more difficult, but also more important.

Russian Electoral Trends

December 2001

What went wrong in Russias decade-old post-communist transition?

The Global Divergence of Democracies

December 2001

Drawn from outstanding articles published in the Journal of Democracy, The Global Divergence of Democracies follows the enthusiastically received earlier volume, The Global Resurgence of Democracy...

Elections and Democracy in Greater China

December 2001

The authoritarian Chinese regimes governing Taiwan, Mainland China, and Hong Kong allowed limited electoral competition during the last half century.

Electoralism: Why Elections Are Not Democracy

December 2000

The first-ever encyclopedic examination of elections and electoral concepts worldwide.

Russia on the Eve of the 1999 Duma Elections

December 2000

The first product of the Carnegie Moscow Center's research on the 1999 Duma elections.

Political Change in Taiwan: Implications for American Policy

October 2000

Transcript of an address given by Richard Bush, chairman of the board and managing director of the American Institute in Taiwan, on May 24, 2000.

Russia Under Putin: One Step Forward, Two Steps Backward

July 2000

Russia's March 2000 presidential election represents one step forward and two steps back for Russian democracy.

Party Formation and Non-Formation in Russia

May 2000

A party system is an essential attribute of a democratic policy. No parties, no democracy.

Russia's Stalled Democracy

March 2000

Russia today is an electoral democracy. Political leaders come to power through the ballot box. They are not appointed by the Central Committee of the Communist Party.

Consolidating Democracy in South Korea

February 2000

Since its inception in 1987, Korean democracy has been an arean of continual drama and baffling contradictions, periodic waves of societal mobilization and disenchantment; initial continuity in...